Some diseases in newborn

Some diseases are common in newborn, which we should be able to distinguish.

Some diseases are common in newborns, which we should be able to distinguish. The common diseases in newborn are –

1. Respiratory distress syndrome

There is a surfactant in the human lungs, which can help it to expand better. This surfactant forms when you are inside the mother's womb in the early part of the third trimester. If you are born very early, then there will be less surfactant and you alveoli may not expand. This will cause the collapse of the alveoli, causing haziness in both lungs. The findings are the presence of diffuse haziness in both lungs. This will look as a ground glass ( like the glass of your bathroom window with mist in it), and it is called diffuse ground glass opacity.

Note in this Xray, there is the presence of diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lungs, in a premature baby, a case of Respiratory Distress syndrome.

2. Meconium Aspiration Syndrome-

In postmature babies, which are born after 40 weeks, the baby may defecate inside the mother's womb. This baby’s stool  is called meconium and the child may aspirate the meconium into the lungs during birth.  The meconium may lodge in some bronchi which may cause the collapse of the part of the lung. In some bronchi, it may cause air trapping, which may burst to cause pneumothorax. So in Meconium aspiration syndrome, we will be able to see multiple patches in the lungs, which are patches of aspirated meconium and of collapsed portion of lungs. Also, we will be able to see areas of hyperinflated lungs, which are formed from air trapping.

In this xray,  we can see opacity silhouetting the right heart border and causing the shift of the heart to the right side. This is a case of the right middle lobe collapse. This was a postmature baby and is a case of Meconium aspiration syndrome.

3. Transient Tachypnea of Newborn-

By the name, the neonate presents with tachypnea ( fast respiration) , and it will be transient. In this case, there will be fluid in the interlobular septae and the fissures and pleural cavity, and so you should followup in 72 hours to see it subside. In this case, it is called transient because it usually subsides ( heals) by 72 hours. So, you should exclude this condition if the child is symptomatic after 72 hours.

Note the interstitial opacities, right fissural thickening in the lungs. Note it has disappeared in 72 hours, which was a case of Transient Tachypnea of newborn.

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